World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 11 , ISSUE 6 ( November-December, 2020 ) > List of Articles


Visualization of Tongue Morphology: An Emerging Mode of Personal Identification

Lakshminarayana Surendra, Vanishri C Haragannavar, Samudrala V Sowmya

Keywords : Clinical examination, Forensic dentistry, Oral cavity, Photography, Tongue

Citation Information : Surendra L, Haragannavar VC, Sowmya SV. Visualization of Tongue Morphology: An Emerging Mode of Personal Identification. World J Dent 2020; 11 (6):501-505.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1770

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 03-04-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2020; The Author(s).


Aim: The tongue is the only internal organ well encased within the oral cavity, which can be assessed easily by means of inspection and palpation. The shape and physiologic texture of the tongue remains unique to a person. There are various studies on identification of a person using fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, etc., but these modes of identification could be altered by external factors. Hence, we designed a study to identify a person by using the tongue as an identifying tool through the photographic method. Correlation of morphological parameters of the tongue was done through clinical examination and photographic images. Materials and methods: Total 30 walk-in subjects comprising 15 females and 15 males with an age range 18–65 years were considered in the study. The subjects were analyzed for morphological features of the tongue by clinical examination and the photographic method. Results: Among 30 subjects, 13 cases showed smooth texture of the tongue, fissured tongue was observed in 14 cases, and 3 cases showed mild fissured. Shape of the tongue was found to be hammered in 10 cases; 9 ellipsoid and 11 rounded shapes were observed. Apex of the tongue was sharp in 9 cases and 21 cases showed a rounded appearance. No cases showed a septate shape. Color of the tongue was whitish in 2 cases, 23 cases were pale pink, and 5 cases were pink. Conclusion: To conclude, the tongue could replace the other common biometric tools due to its unique features. Further studies with larger sample and advanced techniques are necessary. Clinical significance: Thus, the tongue could be used as a tool for personal identification by the photographic method.

  1. Jeddy N, Radhika T, Nithya S. Tongue prints in biometric authentication: a pilot study. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol: JOMFP 2017;21(1):176–179. DOI: 10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_185_15.
  2. Radhika T, Jeddy N, Nithya S. Tongue prints: a novel biometric and potential forensic tool. J Forensic Dent Sci 2016;8(3):117–119. DOI: 10.4103/0975-1475.195119.
  3. Rani JS, Devaraj D, Sukanesh R. A Novel Feature Extraction Technique for Face Recognition. In: International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Multimedia Applications (ICCIMA 2007). IEEE, pp. 428–435.
  4. Li C, Barreto A. An Integrated 3D Face-Expression Recognition Approach. In: 2006 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics Speed and Signal Processing Proceedings. IEEE, p. III-1132-III-1135.
  5. Garibotto G. Video Surveillance and Biometric Technology Applications. In: 2009 Sixth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance. IEEE, pp. 288–288.
  6. O'Gorman L, Chatham NJ. Overview of fingerprint verification technologies. Elsevier Inf Secur Tech Rep 1998;3(1):43. DOI: 10.1016/S1363-4127(98)80015-0.
  7. Bhattacharyya D, Ranjan R, FA A, et al. Biometric authentication service launched in USA. Int J Serv Sci Technol 2009;2:13–28.
  8. Kaur G, Gaganpreet DS. A novel biometric system based on hybrid fusion speech, signature and tongue. Int J Comput Appl 2015;119(7):30–39. DOI: 10.5120/21082-3764.
  9. Stefanescu CL, Popa MF, Candea LS. Preliminary study on the tongue-based forensic identification. Rom J Leg Med 2014;22(4):263–266. DOI: 10.4323/rjlm.2014.263.
  10. Diwakar M, Manoj D. An extraction and recognition of tongue-print images for biometrics authentication system. Int J Comput Appl 2013;61(3):36–42. DOI: 10.5120/9912-4509.
  11. Zhang D, Liu Z, Yan J. Dynamic tongueprint: a novel biometric identifier. Pattern Recognit 2010;43(3):1071–1082. DOI: 10.1016/j.patcog.2009.09.002.
  12. Liu Z, Yan J-Q, Zhang D, et al. A Tongue-Print Image Database for Recognition. In: 2007 International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics. IEEE, pp. 2235–2238.
  13. Oji T, Namiki T, Nakaguchi T, et al. Study of factors involved in tongue color diagnosis by Kampo medical practitioners using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test and tongue color images. Evidence-Based Complement Altern Med 2014;2014:1–9. DOI: 10.1155/2014/783102.
  14. Huang B, Wu J, Zhang D, et al. Tongue shape classification by geometric features. Inf Sci (Ny) 2010;180(2):312–324. DOI: 10.1016/j.ins.2009.09.016.
  15. Sudarshan R, Sree Vijayabala G, Samata Y, et al. Newer classification system for fissured tongue: an epidemiological approach. J Tropi Med 2015. 2015. DOI: 10.1155/2015/262079.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.