Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the type of bacteria present in necrotic root canals of permanent teeth. Materials and methods: All 60 participants with infected root canals were made to use 10 mL of mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine. Access to pulp chamber was established, and the sterile absorbent paper cones were inserted into the canal for 20 seconds. The contaminated paper cones were inoculated in a brain–heart infusion (BHI) agar culture medium and incubated in an oven for 48 hours at 37°C. Results were analyzed statistically with SPSS version 20.0 using Chi-square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: In root canals with periapical lesions, gram-positive bacilli was present in 50 cases, gram-negative in 48 and yeast cells in 28; while in root canals without periapical lesions, gram-positive bacilli was present in 8. In 16 root canals of chronic apical periodontitis cases, gram-positive bacteria was present in 100%, gram-negative bacteria in 100%, and yeast cells in 20% cases. In 12 cases of periapical granuloma, gram-positive bacteria was present in 98%, gram-negative bacteria in 100%, and yeast cells in 40% cases. In 10 cases of chronic abscess with fistula, gram-positive bacteria was present in 86.2. In six cases of phoenix abscess, gram-positive bacteria was present in 100% and gram-negative bacteria in 100% cases. Conclusion: There is predominantly gram-positive and -negative bacteria as well as the presence of yeast cells in periapical lesions. Clinical significance: Knowledge about the bacterial species in root canal infection helps in its management and in selecting antibiotic.
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