Aim: To assess and compare the internal morphology of the maxillary first molar and the incidence of the fourth root canal, especially mesiobuccal (MB2) using three diagnostic methods, clinically with or without dental operating microscopy (DOM) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).
Materials and methods: A total of 336 maxillary first molar teeth were examined and distributed into the following groups: group I (n = 112), the teeth were treated by dental interns without any means of magnification. Group II (n = 112), the teeth were treated by an endodontist with the use of the a dental operating microscope (DOM). Group III (n = 112), the CBCT images were selected and examined carefully.
Results: The second mesiobuccal root canal within the maxillary first molar was present in groups I, II and III with the incidence of 27%, 46% and 60%, respectively.
Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the maxillary first molar teeth showed significant variations of their root canals. CBCT and dental operating microscope significantly facilitated the location and identification of the second root canal of the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molar.
Clinical significance: Knowledge of root canal anatomy is an important factor for a successful endodontic outcome.
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