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VOLUME 10 , ISSUE 3 ( May-June, 2019 ) > List of Articles


Evaluation of Nicotine Dependence among Smokers in Salem District Using Modified Fagerstrom Questionnaire (m-FTQ)

Karthik R Mohan, Mohan Narayanan, Ravikumar P Thangavel, Saramma M Fenn, Jeyavel MJ Rani

Keywords : Contemplation, Modified-Fagerstrom rating questionnaire scale (m-FTQ), Nicotine dependence, Pre-contemplation, Smokers

Citation Information : Mohan KR, Narayanan M, Thangavel RP, Fenn SM, Rani JM. Evaluation of Nicotine Dependence among Smokers in Salem District Using Modified Fagerstrom Questionnaire (m-FTQ). World J Dent 2019; 10 (3):227-234.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1627

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-06-2019

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; The Author(s).


Nicotine dependence is a challenging health problem presently among smokers as it involves a compulsive use of a substance in spite of its known harmful effects. Aim: The primary aim is to assess the nicotine dependence in a group of smokers by using seven-question m-FTQ (modified Fagerstrom questionnaire) and to assess the nicotine dependence with age, duration in years, and the number of packets smoked per day. Materials and methods: Only those who use smoking forms of tobacco in the age groups between 16 years and 79 years were randomly selected by visiting Vinayaka Mission's Sankarachariyar Dental College, Vinayaka Missions Research Foundation. The total sample size is 200 patients. The age groups were divided into < 20, 21–30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, 61–70, and 71–80. Informed consents were obtained from the participants of the study. The questionnaire was carried at chairside in the outpatient Department of Oral Medicine, Diagnosis and Radiology, Vinayaka Missions Sankarachariyar Dental College, Vinayaka Missions Research Foundation, Salem. Results: Beedi smokers were at a risk of developing nicotine dependence when compared to cigarette and churut smokers. Conclusion: Churut smokers were found to have high mean nicotine dependence Fagerstrom score than beedi and cigarette smokers. In this study, moderate nicotine dependence Fagerstrom score was found to be predominant among the smoking population of Salem. Clinical significance: This study helps to assess nicotine dependence among smokers in Salem and the necessity to provide counseling for the cessation of tobacco and establishment of tobacco cessation centers.

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