Citation Information :
Mohammed A, K S, Mohindroo A, Shetty A, Shetty V, Rao S, Shetty P. Assessment and Measurement of Interleukin 6 in Periodontal Ligament Tissues during Orthodontic Tooth Movement. World J Dent 2019; 10 (2):88-92.
Aim: To assess and measure the levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in the periodontal ligament (PDL) during orthodontic treatment at various intervals of the force application.
Materials and methods: A sample of 60 premolar teeth were divided into controls and test groups of 30 samples each. Each tooth was assigned a time point for its extraction at 2 hours, 15th day or the 30th day after application of force. Brackets were bonded to the experimental teeth in the mesiodistal center but at 5 degrees to the long axis of the tooth to apply a force of 200–250 g, which was measured by Correx gauge. Gracey's curette was used to scrape off all the periodontal ligament covering the root surface of the extracted teeth. Cytokine IL-6 was measured by the use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit at a wavelength of 450 nm.
Results: There was no difference in the levels of IL-6 at 2 hours for the test and the control groups. IL-6 concentration showed the maximum levels when measured on the 15th day and showed a decrease on the 30th day.
Conclusion: This study depicted a pattern followed by IL-6 after orthodontic force application, and is a step further in establishing IL-6 as a potential biomarker for improving the orthodontic treatment in terms of decreased treatment time and decreased side effects.
Clinical significance: IL-6 can be used as a potential biomarker for efficient treatment in terms of decreased treatment time intervals and decreased side effects of the orthodontic treatment.
Madureira DF, de Albuquerque Taddei S, Abreu MH, et al. Kinetics of interleukin-6 and chemokine ligands 2 and 3 expression of periodontal tissues during orthodontic tooth movement. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2012;142(4):494-500.
Davidovitch Z. Tooth movement. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1991; 2: 411-450.
Alhashimi N, Frithiof L, Brudvik P, et al. Orthodontic tooth movement and de novo synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2001;119(3):307- 312.
Shimizu, N, Ogura N, Yamaguchi M, et al. Stimulation by interleukin-1 of interleukin-6 production by human periodontal ligament cells. Archives of Oral Biology 1992;37(9):743-748.
Uematsu S, Mogi M, Deguchi T. Interleukin(IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, epidermal growth factor, and beta 2-microglobulin levels are elevated in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement. J Dent Res 1996;75:562-567.
Anastasi G, Cordasco G, Matarese G, et al. An immune histochemical, histological, and electron-microscopic study of the human periodontal ligament during orthodontic treatment. Int J Mol Med 2008;21:545-554.
Meikle MC. The tissue, cellular, and molecular regulation of orthodontic tooth movement: 100 years after Carl Sandstedt. Eur J Orthod 2006 Jun;28(3):221-240.
Krishnan V, Davidovitch Z. Cellular, molecular, and tissue level reactions to orthodontic force. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2006;129:469. e1-32.
Garlet TP, Coelho U, Silva JS, et al. Cytokine expression pattern in compression and tension sides of the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement in humans. Eur J Oral Sci 2007;115(5):355-362.
Garlet TP, Coelho U, Repeke CE, et al. Differential expression of osteoblast and osteoclast chemo attractants in compression and tension sides during orthodontic movement. Cytokine 2008;42:330-335.
Lee YH, Nahm DS, Jung YK, et al. Differential gene expression of periodontal ligament cells after loading of static compressive force. J Periodontol 2007;78:446-452.
Basaran G, Ozer T, Kaya FA, et al. Interleukins 2, 6, and 8 levels in human gingival sulcus during orthodontic treatment. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006;130:1-6.
Ren Y, Vissink A. Cytokines in crevicular fluid and orthodontic tooth movement. Eur J Oral Sci 2008;116(2):89-97.
Zainal Ariffin SH, Yamamoto Z, Abidin Z, et al. Cellular and molecular changes in orthodontic tooth movement. The Scientific World Journal 2011;11:1788-803.
Davidovitch Z, Nicolay OF, Ngan PW, Shanfeld JL. Neurotransmitters, cytokines, and the control of alveolar bone remodeling in orthodontics. Dent Clin North Am 1988;32(3):411-435.
Okada N, Kobayashi M, Mugikura K, et al. Interleukin-6 production in human fibroblasts derived from periodontal tissues is differentially regulated by cytokines and a glucocorticoid. J Periodontol Res 1997; 32:559-569.
Yoo SK, Wartia H, Soma K. Duration of orthodontic force affecting critical response of nitric oxide synthase in rat periodontal ligament. J Med Dent Sci 2004;51:83-88.