Public Awareness Regarding Oral Cancer and Its Risk Factors in Hail City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Yazeed S Altamimi, Ammar A Siddiqui, Moaath A Alsayegh, Omar S Almansour, Hamoud A Alanizy, Ibrahim S Alfawzan, Sattam S Alshammari, Saif Khan
Awareness, Hail, Oral cancer, Saudi Arabia
Citation Information :
Altamimi YS, Siddiqui AA, Alsayegh MA, Almansour OS, Alanizy HA, Alfawzan IS, Alshammari SS, Khan S. Public Awareness Regarding Oral Cancer and Its Risk Factors in Hail City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. World J Dent 2019; 10 (1):41-45.
Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness of the general population of Hail regarding oral cancer and assess their ability to identify the risk factors that may lead to oral cancer.
Materials and methods: An observational study having cross-sectional design was carried out among Hail city population, Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted in November 2017. Data were gathered from 400 respondents, through survey questionnaire, with 95.5% response rate. Nonprobability, convenient sampling technique was used in this study. Saudi citizens above 15 years old were able to participate in this study.
Results: Three hundred eighty-two (382) out of 400 (95.5%) responded to the questionnaire including 203 (53.1%) male and 179 (46.9%) female. One hundred eighty-two (182) (47.6%) of the participants were aware of the disease while the rest 200 (52.4%) of them were not. There was a significant difference between the age and the awareness of oral cancer (p <0.001) and between the level of education and the awareness of oral cancer (p <0.001). The respondents succeeded to identify smoking and alcohol as risk factors 328 (85.9%), 271 (70.9%), respectively. While only 47 (12.3%), 20 (5.2%), 139 (36.4%) participants said that old age, sunlight exposure, and diet are risks factors, respectively.
Conclusion: The present study concluded that people lacked knowledge, and awareness regarding established risk factors of oral cancer. Health education related to primary prevention of oral cancer at the community and individual level needed to improve. Awareness of maintaining a healthy lifestyle which excludes the consumption of established risk factors of oral cancer was below par.
Clinical significance: Improving oral cancer awareness of the population will lead to early detection of the lesion, and this eventually will help in primary prevention and better prognosis among those who have a lesion.
Warnakulasuriya S. Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral oncology. 2009;45(4):309-316.
Silva SRd, Juliano Y, Novo NF, Weinfeld I. Comparative study of knowledge about oral cancer among undergraduate dental students. Einstein (SãoPaulo). 2016;14(3):338-345.
Akbari N, Raeesi V, Khazaei T, Ramezanzadeh K, Ebrahimipour S. Evaluation of General Dentists’ and Dental Specialists’ Knowledge about Oral Cancer in South Khorasan- Iran 2014. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015;16(16):6987-6990.
Baykul T, Yilmaz H, Aydin Ü, Aydin M, Aksoy M, Yildirim D. Early diagnosis of oral cancer. Journal of International Medical Research. 2010;38(3):737-749.
Kumar M, Nanavati R, Modi TG, Dobariya C. Oral cancer: Etiology and risk factors: A review. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics. 2016;12(2):458.
Bassiony MM. Smoking in Saudi Arabia. Saudi medical journal. 2009;30(7):876-881.
Agrawal M, Pandey S, Jain S, Maitin S. Oral cancer awareness of the general public in Gorakhpur city, India. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2012;13(10):5195-5199.
Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali, Bassel Tarakji, Anas B. Alsalhani, Hashem M. Al-Shamiri, Nader Ahmed Alaizari, M. A. Altamimi, and Shourouk Darwish. “Oral cancer awareness of the general public in Saudi Arabia.” Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 16, no. 8 (2015): 3377-3381.
Brown A, Ravichandran K, Warnakulasuriya S. The unequal burden related to the risk of oral cancer in the different regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Community dental health. 2006 Jun 1;23(2):101.
Formosa J, Jenner R, Nguyen-Thi MD, Stephens C, Wilson C, Ariyawardana A. Awareness and Knowledge of Oral Cancer and Potentially Malignant Oral Disorders among Dental Patients in Far North Queensland, Australia. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP. 2015;16(10):4429-4434.
Walsh T, Liu JL, Brocklehurst P, Glenny AM, Lingen M, Kerr AR, Ogden G, Warnakulasuriya S, Scully C. Clinical assessment to screen for the detection of oral cavity cancer and potentially malignant disorders in apparently healthy adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jan 1;11.
Petti S. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer. Oral oncology. 2009 May 31;45(4):340-350.
Al-Maweri SA, Addas A, Tarakji B, Abbas A, Al-Shamiri HM, Alaizari NA, Shugaa-Addin B. Public awareness and knowledge of oral cancer in Yemen. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014 Jan 1;15:10861-10865.
Peker I, Alkurt MT. Public awareness level of oral cancer in a group of dental patients. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2010 Mar 1;11(2):49-56.
Ghani WM, Doss JG, Jamaluddin M, Kamaruzaman D, Zain RB. Oral cancer awareness and its determinants among a selected Malaysian population. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2013;14(3):1957-1963.