World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 10 , ISSUE 1 ( January-February, 2019 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Effect of Different Commercially Available Biscuits on Salivary pH, Flow Rate and Oral Clearance Rate Among Children

Nikhil Kumar, Anupama Nayak P, Ashwin Rao

Keywords : Children, Diet, Flow rate, Oats, Oral clearance rate, Saliva, Salivary pH, Salt, Snacks

Citation Information : Kumar N, P AN, Rao A. Effect of Different Commercially Available Biscuits on Salivary pH, Flow Rate and Oral Clearance Rate Among Children. World J Dent 2019; 10 (1):35-40.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1599

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-02-2019

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; The Author(s).


Abstract

Introduction: Snacks and bakery foodstuffs like biscuits are the most preferred food items in the present decade. Thus it is important to know its cariogenicity. Aim: To study the effect of five commercially available biscuits on salivary pH, flow rate and oral clearance rate among children. Materials and methods: The study consisted of five groups of commercially available biscuits: oats, salt, glucose, cream, chocolate biscuits. Samples of saliva were collected, and pH was measured using an electrode, the flow rate directly from the calibrated test tube and the oral clearance time was estimated based on the time taken for the salivary pH to return back to the baseline values. After which, children were given one biscuit each and stimulated saliva samples were collected at different time intervals. Obtained values were subjected to the paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey's test. Results: Salivary pH had decreased compared to baseline for all the five commercially available biscuits with maximum drop seen for glucose, cream and chocolate biscuit group at 5 minutes. Oats group showed a maximum drop in mean salivary pH at 15 minutes and salt biscuits at 10 minutes. Increased salivary flow rate was seen for oats, salt, and cream biscuit group at 15 minutes and chocolate and glucose group had reduced when compared to its baseline value. The pH at 15 minutes had not returned back to the baseline values for all groups. Conclusion: The consumption of commercially available biscuits had an effect on salivary pH, flow rate and oral clearance rate in children. Clinical significance: snacks and bakery foodstuffs are the most preferred diet in the present decade by most of the age group. Biscuits being the commonest snack, this study helps in choosing the right biscuits for the children causing less harm to the general and dental health.


PDF Share
  1. World health organization. Oral health fact sheet N0 318. 2012 Apr; Available on: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/ fs318/en/index.html.
  2. Edgar M, Dawes C, O Mullanr D. Saliva and oral health. 3rd ed. London: British Dental Association; 2004.
  3. Stephan RM. Changes in hydrogen-ion concentration on tooth surfaces and in carious lesions. JADA 1940;27(5):718-723
  4. Touger- Decker R, Loveren C. Sugars and dental cares. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78: 881-892.
  5. Thaweboon S, Suddhasthira T, Thaweboon B, Soo- Ampon S, Dechkunakorn S. Plaque pH response to snack foods in children with different levels of mutans streptococci. South East Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2007;38(3):598-603.
  6. Desu MM, Raghavarao D. Sample Size Methodology. Academic Press. 1990. New York. p. 172.
  7. Nirmala S, Quadar MA, Veluru S. pH modulation and salivary sugar clearance of different chocolates in children: A randomized clinical trial. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2016 Jan-Mar;34(1):10-16.
  8. Hans R, Thomas S, Garla B, Rushabh J. Dagli, Manoj Kumar Hans. Effect of Various Sugary Beverages on Salivary pH, Flow Rate, and Oral Clearance Rate amongst Adults. Scientifica; 2016.
  9. Roxie Rodgers Dinstel. Choosing healthy snacks for children. University of Alaska Fairbanks [internet].2015.
  10. S. Vijayalakshmi, T. Kanchana, S. Vasantha, N. Devi, A. Arun. Restore our Indian traditional snacks among school going children. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2016 Oct ;7(4):121-124
  11. Hicks J, Garcia-Godoy F, Flaitz C. Biological factors in dental caries: role of saliva and dental plaque in the dynamic process of demineralization and remineralization, part 1. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2003;28(1):47-52.
  12. Silverstone LM. Effect of oral fluid and synthetic calcifying fluids in vitro on remineralization of enamel lesions. Clin- Prev Dent. 1982;4(4):13-22.
  13. Ranganath L, Shet R, Rajesh A. Saliva: a powerful diagnostic tool for minimal intervention dentistry. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2012;13(2):240-245.
  14. Featherstone JD, Zero DT. An in situ model for simultaneous assessment of inhibit ion of demineral izat ion and enhancement of remineralization. J Dent Res. 1992;71:804-810.
  15. Wessinger GD. Comparative measurements of salivary pH. J Dent Res. 1941 Apr;20(2):123-127.
  16. Hofman LF. Human saliva as a diagnostic specimen. J Nutr. 2001 May;131(5):1621S-1625S.
  17. Vassilakos N, Nilner K, Birkhed D. Oral electrochemical action after soft drink rinsing and consumption of sweets. Scand J Dent Res 1990 Aug;98(4):336-340.
  18. Pachori A, Kambalimath H, Maran S, Babita Niranjan, Garima Bhambhani, Garima Malhotra. Evaluation of Changes in Salivary pH after Intake of Different Eatables and Beverages in Children at Different Time Intervals. International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, May-June 2018;11(3):177-182.
  19. Lagerlof F, Oliveby A. Caries-protective factors in saliva. Adv Dent Res.1994 Jul;8(2):229-238.
  20. Iorgulescu G. Saliva between normal and pathological. Important factors in determining systemic and oral health. J Med Life 2009;2(3):303-307.
  21. Watanabe S, Dawes C. The effects of different foods and concentrations of citric acid on the flow rate of whole saliva in man. Arch Oral Biol. 1988;33(1):1-5.
  22. Konig KG. Diet and oral health. Int Dent J 2000;50:162- 74.
  23. Dodds MWJ, Edgar WM. The relationship between plaque ph, plaque acid anion profiles, and oral carbohydrate retention after ingestion of several ‘Reference Foods’ by human subjects. J Dent Res 1988;67:861-865.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.