World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 10 , ISSUE 1 ( January-February, 2019 ) > List of Articles


Sociodemographic Inequalities and Health Behaviors in the Dental and Periodontal Health

Rachid Ait Addi, Abdelhafid Benksim, Mohamed Cherkaoui

Keywords : Epidemiology, Periodontitis, Sociodemography, Tooth decay

Citation Information : Addi RA, Benksim A, Cherkaoui M. Sociodemographic Inequalities and Health Behaviors in the Dental and Periodontal Health. World J Dent 2019; 10 (1):29-34.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1598

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-02-2019

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; The Author(s).


Aim: Dental decay and periodontal diseases are very common allover the world with outcomes ranging from dental loss to systemic diseases. In this study, we aim to determine the impact of sociodemographic disparities and health behaviors on dental and periodontal health (DPH). Materials and methods: An epidemiological study was conducted amongst 600 dental patients in two private dental clinics in the region of Marrakesh, Morocco from 2012 to 2015. Three hundred seventeen patients between 25 years and 46 years old who were contacted by telephone to carry out a supplementary survey and of these 317 patients, 82 subjects were maintained. A questionnaire was followed to assess sociodemographic dis-parities, self-reported oral health status, and hygiene behaviors. Results: The age of the sample varies between 3 years and 78 years with an average of 31.2 ± 14.3 years. Also, the dominant age group is between 26 and 44 years old with a percentage of 47.6%. The distribution of the population by sex shows good equity (53.4% of men and 46.6% of women). For the educational level, 7.3% of the population is illiterate, 17.1% have a primary level, 39.0% have a high school level and 36.6% have a university level. In addition, habitation is urban at 79.3%, and rural at 20.7%. Furthermore, we note that only 28.8% of patients have a good daily toothbrushing frequency which is equal to or greater than 3. Conclusion: Dental and periodontal health (DPH) are indeed affected by sociodemographic and economic status with higher dental problems among rural and poor people. Clinical significance: Dental and periodontal diseases are serious problems of public health allover the world.   The lack of oral education and dental cares, particularly in developing countries and rural areas may increase these affections. The result of this study shows the implication of sociodemographic disparities and health behaviors in dental and periodontal outcomes.   This work will complement the limited knowledge of the existing interaction between sociodemographic disparities and health behaviors and dental and periodontal affections. It is also a fundamental starting of public health preventive or therapeutic strategies.

PDF Share
  1. Brown LJ, Wall TP, Lazar V. Trends in caries among adults 18 to 45 years old. J Am Dent Assoc 2002;133:827-834.
  2. Lukacs JR, Largaespada L L. Explaining sex differences in dental caries prevalence: saliva, hormones, and life history etiologies. American Journal of Human Biology 2006;18(4):540-555.
  3. Fejerskov O, Nyvad B, Kidd E, eds. Dental caries: the disease and its clinical management. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell; 2015.
  4. Dye BA, Tan S, Smith V, Lewis BG, Barker LK, Thornton-Evans G, et al. Trends in oral health status: United States, 1988–1994 and 1999–2004. National Center for Health Statistics Vital Health Stat. 2007;11(248):1-92.
  5. Eke PI, Dye BA, Wei L, Thornton-Evans GO, Genco RJ. Prevalence of periodontitis in adults in the United States: 2009 and
  6. J Dent Res. 2012;91(10):914-920.
  7. Grembowski D, Spiekerman C, Milgrom P. Social gradients in dental health among low-income mothers and their young children. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2012;23(2): 570-588.
  8. Peltzer K, Pengpid S. Oral Health Behaviour and Social and Health Factors in University Students from 26 Low, Middle and High Income Countries. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (2014);12247-12260.
  9. Kaoutar K, Hilali MK, Loukid M. La situation de la carie dentaire chez les adolescents de la Wilaya de Marrakech (Maroc). Antropo 2013;29:101-108.
  10. Eke PI, Dye BA, Wei L, Slade GD, Thornton-Evans GO, Borgnakke WS, Taylor GW, Page RC, Beck JD, Genco RJ. Update on Prevalence of Periodontitis in Adults in the United States: NHANES 2009 to 2012. J Periodontol. 2015;86:611-622.
  11. Buunk-Werkhoven YAB, Buunk AP. Fear of social rejection and oral self-care in men versus women. Int Dent J. 2015;65 (Suppl1):1-57.
  12. Mamai-Homata E, Koletsi-Kounari H, and Margaritis V. Gender differences in oral health status and behavior of Greek dental students: A meta-analysis of 1981, 2000, and 2010 data. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2016 Jan-Feb;6(1):60-68.
  13. Vano M, Gennai S, Karapetsa D, et al. The influence of educational level and oral hygiene behaviours on DMFT index and CPITN index in an adult Italian population: an epidemiological study. Int J Dent Hyg. 2015 May;13(2):151-157.
  14. Piovesan C, Mendes FM, Antunes JLF, Ardenghi, TM. Inequalitie sin the distribution of dental caries among 12-year-old Brazilian school children. Braz Oral Res (2011);25: 6975.
  15. Chung LH, Gregorich SE, Armitage GC, Gonzalez-Vargas J, Adams SH. Sociodemographic disparities and behavioral factors in clinical oral health status during pregnancy. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2014;42:151-159.
  16. Ahn S, Burdine JN, Smith ML, Ory MG, Phillips CD. Residential rurality and oral health disparities: influences of contextual and individual factors. J Prim Prev. (2011) Feb;32(1): 29-41.
  17. Ogunbodede EO, Kida IA, Madjapa HS, Amedari M, Ehizele A, et al. Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region. Adv Dent Res. 2015 Jul;27(1):18-25.
  18. Peltzer K, Pengpid S. Oral Health Behaviour and Social and Health Factors in University Students from 26 Low, Middle and High Income Countries. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014;11:12247-12260.
  19. Ritchie CS, Kinane DF. Nutrition, inflammation, and periodontal disease. Nutrition 2003;19:475.476.
  20. Hermsdorff HH, Puchau B, Volp AC, Barbosa KB, Bressan J, Zulet MA, et al. Dietary total antioxidant capacity is inversely related to central adiposity as well as to metabolic and oxidative stress markers in healthy young adults. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2011;8:59.
  21. Franchini R, Petri A, Migliaro M, Rimondini L. Poor oral hygiene and gingivitis are associated with obesity and overweight status in paediatric subjects. J Clin Periodontol 2011;38: 1021-1028.
  22. Ostberg AL, Bengtsson C, Lissner L, Hakeberg M. Oral health and obesity indicators. BMC Oral Health 2012;12:50.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.